Physics science Formula and Tables

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  • Page 1 of 10 Physical Science : Tables & Formulas SI Base Units Base Quantity Unit Name Unit Symbol Amount of substance mole Mol Electric current ampere A Length meter M Luminous intensity candela Cd Mass kilogram Kg Time second S Temperature Kelvin K SI Derive d Units Derived Quantity Name (Symbol) Expression in terms of other SI units Expression in terms of SI base units Area Square meter (m 2) Volume Cubic meter (m 3) Speed/velocity Meter per second (m/s) Acceleration Meter per second squared (m/s 2) Frequency Hertz (Hz) s-1 Force Newton (N) m . kg . s-2 Pressure, stress Pascal (Pa) N.m2 m-1 . kg . s-2 Energy, work, quantity of heat Joule (J) N. m m2 . kg . s-2 Power Watt (W) J/s m2 . kg . s-3 Electric charge Coulomb (C) -- s . A Electric pot ential difference Volt (V) W/A m2·kg·s -3·A -1 Electric resistance Ohm (Ω) V/A m2·kg·s -3·A -2 Prefixes used to designate multiples of a base unit Prefix Symbol Meaning Multiple of base unit Scientific Notation tera T trillion 1, 000, 000, 000, 000 10 12 giga G billion 1, 000, 000, 000 10 9 mega M Million 1, 000, 000 10 6 kilo k Thousand 1, 000 10 3 centi c One hundredth 1/100 or .01 10 -2 milli m One thousandth 1/1000 or .001 10 -3 micro u One millionth 1/1000000 or .000001 10 -6 Nano n One billionth 1/1000000000 or .000000001 10 -9 pico p One trillionth 1/1000000000000 or.000000000001 10 -12 In general, when converting from base units (m, l, g, etc) or derived units (m 2,m 3, m/s, Hz, N, J, V, etc) to a multiple greater (kilo, mega, giga, or tera) than the base or derived unit - then divide by the factor. For example: 10m = 10/1000km = 1/100 km = .01km.
  • Page 2 of 10 When converting from base units or derived units to a multiple smaller (centi, milli, micro, nano) than the base or derived unit - then multiply by the factor. For example: 10m = 10 x 100cm = 1000cm. Subatomic Particles Par ticle Charge Mass Location Proton +1 1 nucleus Neutron 0 1 nucleus Electron -1 0 Outside the nucleus Common Cations Ion Name (symbol) Ion Charge Lithium (Li) 1+ Sodium (Na) 1+ Potassium (K) 1+ Rubidium (Rb) 1+ Cesium (Cs) 1+ Beryllium (Be) 2+ M agnesium (Mg) 2+ Calcium (Ca) 2+ Strontium (Sr) 2+ Barium (Ba) 2+ Aluminum (Al) 3+ Common Anions Element Name (symbol) Ion Name (symbol) Ion Charge Fluorine Fluoride 1- Chlorine Chlor ide 1- Brom ine Brom ide 1- Iod ine Iod ide 1- Oxygen Oxide 2- Sulfur Sulfide 2- Nitrogen Nitride 3- Common Polyatomic Ions Ion Name Ion Formula Ion Name Ion Formula Carbonate CO 32- Nitrite NO 2- Chlorate ClO 3- Phosphate PO 43- Cyanide CN - Phosphite PO 33- Hydroxide OH - Sulfate SO 42- Nitrate NO 3- Sulfite SO 32-
  • Page 3 of 10 Prefixes for Naming Covalent Compounds Number of Atoms Prefix Number of Atoms Prefix 1 Mono 6 Hexa 2 Di 7 Hepta 3 Tri 8 Octa 4 Tetra 9 Nona 5 penta 10 deca Types of Chemical Reactions Type of reaction Generalized formula Specific Example Combustion HC + O2  H2O + CO 2 2C2H6 + 7O2  6H2O + 4CO 2 Synthesis A + B  AB 2Na + Cl 2  2NaCl Decomposition AB  A + B 2H2O  2H2 + O 2 Single Replacement A + BC  AC + B 2Al + 3CuCl 2  3Cu + 2AlCl 3 Double Replacement AX + BY  AY + BX Pb(NO 3)2 + K 2CrO 4  PbCrO 4 + 2KNO 3 The Effects of Change on Equilibrium in a Reversible Reaction (Le Châtelier’s Principle) Condition Effect Temperature Increasing temperature favors the reaction that absorbs energy (endotherm ic) Pressure Increasing pressure favors the reaction that produces less gas. Concentration Increasing conc. of one substance favors reaction that produces less of that substance Common Acids Acid Formula Streng th Hydrochloric (muriatic) acid HCl str ong Nitric acid HNO 3 strong Sulfuric acid H2SO 4 strong Acetic acid CH 3COOH weak Citric acid C6H8O7 weak Formic HCOOH weak Common Bases Base Formula Strength Potassium hydroxide (potash) KOH strong Sodium hydroxide (lye) NaOH strong Calcium hyd roxide (lime) Ca(OH) 2 strong ammonia NH 3 weak
  • Page 4 of 10 pH scale Strong acids  more acidic  weak acids Neutral Weak bases  More basic  strong bases 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Types of Nuclear Radiation Radiation Type Symbol Charge Nu clear Equation Alpha particle 2 4He +2 89 225Ac  87 221Fr + 2 4He Beta particle -1 0e -1 614C  7 14N + -1 0e Gamma γ 0 n/a Equations Density = mass ÷ volume (D = m/v) Units: g/cm 3 or g/mL Rearranged : mass = Density x Volume Units: grams or Volume = mass ÷ density Units: cm 3 or mL Moles = mass (grams) x Molar Mass (grams / mol) Molar Mass = atomic mass in grams Energy = mass x (speed of light) 2 E = mc 2 Units: joules Speed = distance ÷ time v = d ÷ t Units: meters / second Rearranged : distance = speed x time Units: meters time = distance ÷ speed Units: seconds Momentum = mass x velocity p = m x v Units: kg . m/s Acceleration = (final velocity - initial velocity) ÷ time a = Δv ÷ t Units: meters / (second) 2 Rearranged : Δv = acceleration x time Units: meters/second time = Δv ÷ a Units: seconds Force = mass x acceleration F = m x a Units: kg . m/s 2 or Newtons (N) Rearranged: mass = Force ÷ ac celeration Units: g or kg acceleration = Force ÷ mass Units: meters / (second) 2
  • Page 5 of 10 Weight = mass x gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) Units: kg . m/s 2 or Newtons (N) Work = Force x distance W = F x d Units: Joules (J) Rearranged : Force = Work ÷ distance Units: Newtons distance = Work ÷ Force Units: meters Power = Work ÷ time P = W ÷ t Units: J/s or Watts (W) Rearranged: Work = Power x time Units: Joules (J) time = Work ÷ Po wer Units: seconds (s) Mechanical Advantage = Output Force ÷ Input Force (Resistance Force ÷ Effort Force) or Mechanical Advantage = Input Distance ÷ Output Distance (Effort Distance ÷ Resistance Distance) Gravitational Potential Energy = mass x gra vity (9.8 m/s 2) x height GPE = m x g x h Units: Joul es Rearranged : m = GPE ÷ ( g . h) h = GPE ÷ (m . g) Kinetic Energy = ½ mass x (velocity) 2 KE = .5 mv 2 Units: Joules Rearranged : m = 2KE ÷ v 2 v = Efficiency of a Mach ine = (Useful Wo rk Output ÷ Work Input ) x 100 Temperature Conversions Celsius -Fahrenheit Conversion : Fahrenheit temperature = (1.8 x Celsius temperature) + 32.0 0 F = 1.8 (C) + 32 0 Celsius temperature = (Fahrenheit temperature – 32) ÷ 1.8 C = (F – 32) ÷ 1.8 Celsius -Kelvin Conversion : Kelvin = Celsius + 273 Celsius = Kelvin -273
  • Page 6 of 10 Specific Heat Equation Energy = mass x Specific Heat Value x change in temperature E = m . c . Δ t Units: Joules Rearranged : mass = Energy ÷ ( c x Δ T) Units: kg Δ T = Energy ÷ ( c x mass ) Units: K or 0C Wave Speed Equation Wave ’s Speed = frequency x wavelength v = f x λ Units: m/s Rearranged : Frequency = Wave Speed ÷ wavelength f = v ÷ λ Units: Hertz Wavelength = Wave Speed ÷ frequency λ = v ÷ f Units: meters / second Speed of light (in a vacuum) = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s (300,000,000 m/s) Speed of Sound (in air at 25 0C) = 3 46 m/s Speed of Sound (in water at 25 0C) = 1490 m /s Speed of Sound (in iron at 25 0C) = 5000 m/s Ohm’s Law Equation Current = Voltage ÷ Resistance I = V / R Units: Amperes (A) Rearranged : Voltage = Current x Resistance V = I x R Units: Volts (V) Resistance = Voltage ÷ Current R = V / I Units: Ohms (Ω) Electric Power Equation Power = Current x Voltage P = I x V Units: watts (W) or Kilowatts (kW) Variations : P = I 2 x R P = V 2 / R Rearranged : Voltage = Power ÷ Current V = P x I Units: Volts (V) Current = Power ÷ Voltage I = P ÷ V Units: Amperes (A)
  • Page 7 of 10 Electromagnetic Spectrum: Relates the energy, frequency and wavelength of various types of electromagnetic waves (radio, TV, micro, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X -ray, and gamma). As energy and frequency increase the wavelength d ecreases .
  • Page 8 of 10
  • Page 9 of 10  AM radio - 535 kilohertz to 1.7 megahertz  Short wave radio - bands from 5.9 megahertz to 26.1 megahertz  Citizens band (CB) radio - 26.96 megahertz to 27.41 megahertz  Television stations - 54 to 88 megahertz for channels 2 through 6  FM radio - 88 megahertz to 108 megahertz  Television stations - 174 to 220 megahertz for channels 7 through 13  Garage door openers, alarm systems, etc. - Around 40 megahertz  Standard cordless phones: Bands from 40 to 50 megahertz  Baby monitors: 49 megahe rtz  Radio controlled airplanes: Around 72 megahertz, which is different from...  Radio controlled cars: Around 75 megahertz  Wildlife tracking collars: 215 to 220 megahertz  MIR space station: 145 megahertz and 437 megahertz  Cell phones: 824 to 849 megah ertz  New 900 -MHz cordless phones: Obviously around 900 megahertz!  Air traffic control radar: 960 to 1,215 megahertz
  • Page 10 of 10  Global Positioning System: 1,227 and 1,575 megahertz  Deep space radio communications: 2290 megahertz to 2300 megahertz

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